Before we discuss your procedure, it is important for you to understand how a healthy knee functions.
The knee is a joint that allows for the motion of your leg, by bending and extending. It is essential for sitting, walking and running.
The bones that make up the knee are the femur, or the thighbone, the tibia, which is the shinbone, and the patella, which is your kneecap. Ligaments, which are bands of tough fibers, hold these bones together and allow for motion. Inside the knee, two ligaments hold the thighbone to the shinbone.
Two types of cartilage are present in the knee joint. The first type of cartilage is articular cartilage. This cartilage covers the ends of the bones and provides a smooth gliding surface.
The second type of cartilage is the meniscal cartilage. This consists of two C-shaped pieces of cartilage that sit between the thighbone and the shinbone. There is one on the inside and one on the outside of the knee joint. Each menisus acts as a shock absorber between the shinbone and the thighbone.
To lubricate the knee, a lining of tissue inside the joint, called the synovium, produces a lubricating fluid.
The knee joint is surrounded by a joint capsule, that attaches to each side of the joint and helps keep the lubricating fluid inside.
There are also muscles, ligaments, and tendons outside of the knee joint that function to stabilize the knee and allow active movement.